Originally, 3 milk-producing cows

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The Montbéliarde

The Montbéliarde breed comes from the Jura mountains branch of Continental European Red and White breeds and produces milk of excellent cheesemaking value.

Only milk from this breed may be used for making Comté, Mont d’Or, Morbier and Emmental Grand Cru. It is fed exclusively on fresh grass in the summer and hay in winter.



The Vosgienne

The Vosgienne breed dates back to the 17th century and can be easily recognised from the broad white stripe on its back.


It is perfectly at home in the mountains and can easily withstand the sudden changes in the local climate.


 The Prim’Holstein

The most popular milk-producing cow in the world.

The black and white Holstein was first introduced into the north of France in the early 19th century. In France, the breed is known as Prim’Holstein (before 1990 it was called Française Frisonne).

What cows eat 



Grass is one of the richest and best-balanced foods for ruminants and contains 80% water. 
The rest is made up of mineral salts (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium), vitamins, a few proteins, carbohydrates (60%) and about 2 to 3% fat content. 
Meadowland makes up about 11 million hectares of French farmland, or about 37% of the total. A good meadow can take two milk-cows per hectare in spring, but only a single cow in summer and autumn. When grass is dried, it’s called hay and is used to feed the cows in late autumn and throughout the winter months.



Hay can be replaced by maize fodder, which has a higher energy content and is highly digestible. It is the basic feed for milk cows in about 90% of farms in winter. If fodder is kept out in the open, it will dry out and lose its nutritional qualities. The solution is ensilaging the fodder, in other words fermenting it in silos in an oxygen-free atmosphere.



Cattle cake is a feed supplement for the cows, made from Soya bean, groundnuts and oilseeds. A milk cow is given a daily ration of 500 grams to 2 kilograms.


Straw is made of the dried stalks of cereals grown for human consumption, such as wheat and barley, once the grains have been removed.

It has low nutritional value and its used mainly for bedding.


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